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Diabetes

Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of common endocrine diseases characterized by sustained high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Diabetes, if left untreated, leads to many health complications. Untreated or poorly treated diabetes accounts for approximately 1.5 million deaths per year.

There is no widely accepted cure for most cases of diabetes. The most common treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin replacement therapy (insulin injections). Anti-diabetic medications such as metformin and semaglutide, as well as lifestyle modifications, can be used to prevent or respond to type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes normally resolves shortly after delivery.

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As of 2019, an estimated 463 million people had diabetes worldwide accounting for 8.8% of the adult population. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of all diabetes cases. The prevalence of the disease continues to increase, most dramatically in low- and middle-income nations. Rates are similar in women and men, with diabetes being the 7th-leading cause of death globally. The global expenditure on diabetes-related healthcare is an estimated USD760 billion a year.

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