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How is diabetes caused?

The causes of diabetes can be broadly categorized into two types:

1. Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This results in little or no insulin production. The exact cause of this autoimmune reaction is not fully understood. Still, it is believed to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors, such as viral infections or dietary factors, that may trigger the autoimmune process in susceptible individuals.

2. Type 2 Diabetes:
The primary causes of type 2 diabetes are:

a. Insulin Resistance: This is a condition where the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, making it difficult for insulin to regulate blood sugar levels effectively.

b. Relative Insulin Deficiency: The pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance.

The development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is strongly linked to several risk factors, including:

- Obesity and excess body weight, especially around the abdomen
- Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity
- Unhealthy diet high in calories, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates
- Increasing age
- Genetic predisposition and family history
- Ethnicity (higher risk in certain ethnic groups)
- History of gestational diabetes or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

While genetics play a role, the majority of type 2 diabetes cases are caused by modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise, which contribute to insulin resistance over time.

How is diabetes caused?-8Diabetes

It's important to note that in some cases, the underlying cause of diabetes may be related to other medical conditions, such as pancreatitis, hormonal disorders, or certain genetic disorders.

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